In this opportunity we are going to talk about some of this component:
Web Sites: Web sites in windows azure allow you to create a web site using visual studio the same way that you use to do it on an on-premise scenario and publish it on the cloud. When you create a web site you can use either create a ASP.NET web form or ASP.NET MVC, this way you can just take care of your application and not about the servers administration, on other hand you count with the possibility of use several instance running your application having fault tolerance and a better performance.
Cloud services: the cloud services are composed for two types of roles, Worker Roles and Web Roles, this approach offer a solution with most possibilities for escalation and a better utilization of the resources because you can create as many instances as you can for any type of role so you can create different numbers of instance for Web Roles (run on IIS) and Worker Roles.
The Web Roles is the role running on IIS and serve the user request, while the Worker roles we can compared with Windows Services that are running and listening for petitions or executing a recurrent process. This way a web role instance might accept requests from users and then pass them to a worker role instance for processing.
SQL Server Azure: SQL Server Azure provides a Database on the cloud with the same key functionalities and features of any relational data base management system. The database crated on SQL Server Azure can be accessed from cloud application and on-premise application using for example ADO.NET. With SQL Server Azure we don’t have the need of do management task on the server just because Microsoft does this for us. SQL Server Azure also offers the possibility of spread our data across multiples server increasing the performance.
Tables: the tables storage is a kind of storage that allow us to store entities base on a pair key/value. This storage is not a relational storage all the information is in a single table that can grow up to 1 terabyte. The advantage of the tables storage is that the performance to create new entities is much higher using tables than using SQL Azure.
Blobs: this kind of storage is designed to store large binary data like videos, pictures or backup files, again this kind of storage is much efficient that save data directly on SQL Azure, also Windows Azure applications can use Windows Azure drives to persistent storage for a Windows file system mounted in a Windows Azure instance.
Queues: queues offer a very simple way for an application to send message to other application, for this an application let a message that can be an entity on a queue and other application that is monitoring the queue take the message and do something with it.
Queues are commonly used to send message from a Web role to a Worker role making possible the asynchronous processing of data.
Windows Azure Services Bus: this component offer a way of communication between different application like mobile application, cloud applications and on-premise applications. When using services bus there are three different type of communication:
Queues: is different that the component Queue seen before, this component offer a queuing system that have full integration with Windows Communication Foundation, designed to integrate applications or application components that may span multiple communication protocols, data contracts, trust domains, and/or network environments.
You can find a full comparison of Windows Azure Queues and Windows Azure Services Bus Queues here.
Topics & Subscription: this type of messaging system is based on the idea of subscriptions and subscribers, in this case an application send a message with determinate topic and is read for all the subscripted for that topic. This way topic & subscription offer a one-to-many communication.
Relay Services: in this case relay services allow us to expose windows communication foundation services that are in our local network to the public cloud without the need of opening connections in our on-premise environment. In this case the services bus in the cloud monitors the request to the WCF services and is this who communicates with this one.